Around 700 civil society organizations exist in Iran. We summarize the role and function of the majority of them with two prevailing issues: waste collection and wildlife study. What are the reasons for these organizations’ lethargy? What steps should be carried out to activate and empower such organizations? How can these organizations assist in protecting the environment? What can done to foster their independence and secure budgets for them? We refer to these and other various issues in this section of the course.