The purpose of this booklet is to set out the core obligations that States have towards LGBT persons, and describe how United Nations mechanisms have applied international law in this context. For the past eighteen years, United Nations human rights treaty bodies and special procedures have documented violations of the human rights of LGBT people and analyzed State compliance with international human rights law. They have accumulated a body of evidence that shows how individuals are targeted on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity, and have issued specific guidance to States. The sections that follow summarize their findings and advice to help States take the necessary steps to meet their fundamental human rights obligations. The booklet is also intended to assist human rights defenders and rights-holders generally to call States to account for breaches of international human rights law.