Step Four: Explore and Select Tactics
Five Steps to Tactical Innovation1. Identify the problem2. Build a common vision and goal3. Define the terrain (Using Tactical Map and Spectrum of Allies tools)Identify relationships around the identified social problemIdentify allies and opponents on a continuum4. Explore and select tactics5. Develop a plan of action for implementation
In Lesson 4 you learned how to create a Spectrum of Allies, placing the individuals, groups and organizations related to your problem and its center relationship on a continuum of support to opposition to your goal.
In Lesson 5 you will see how others have used this tool to develop tactics designed to increase support for your goal and to decrease the power of the opposition.
1. Find evidence showing the need for innovative tactics.
At the beginning of this course, you read six reasons for tactical innovation:
1. What we know how to do influences what we think is possible to do. Tactics help determine strategy.
2. Different tactics are effective against different targets.
3. Different tactics appeal to different constituencies.
4. Tactical flexibility is the source of surprise.
5. Tactics teach participants and observers how to engage in the world.
6. Tactics are the training systems for engaging participants and allies in the organization’s work.
Do you agree with those reasons? Do you have any experience with trying to make a change that supports the need for more tactical innovation?
2. Observe the process of creating a tactic from the course case example, using a Spectrum of Allies analysis.
After you have practiced finding the target and purpose of tactics from case examples, you will see how tactics are developed from analyzing a Spectrum of Allies. Once you are able to develop a range of tactics designed for particular audiences, you will be ready for the final and fifth step, creating a plan of action.
3. Use a Spectrum of Allies analysis to identify a target and several tactics for your problem and goal.
Usually no one tactic will enable you to reach your goal for change. It takes a number of tactics, each one designed to reach a different audience or to increase the participation level of the population in taking action on the problem. Tactics are developed by a process of analyzing your spectrum of allies, but also by studying the tactics others have used, and by brainstorming with others who care about the issue.
In Lesson 6 you will see how a number of tactics for various targets are combined into a Plan of Action. You will also practice the process of choosing tactics that have been used for other problems, but which may adapt well for your context.
Lesson 5 Syllabus
1. Introduction to Lesson 5
2. REVIEW: The Need for New Tactics (Johnson), pp 16-18 in the New Tactics Book
3. Need for New Tactics Examples
4. Case Study: A Struggle from the Ground Up: The Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa
Use the case study "A Struggle from the Ground Up: The Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa."
1. Identify as many tactics as you can find.
2. Identify the target(s) for each tactic.
3. Using the Six Reasons form, identify where each of the tactics might fit.
4. Send to Nancy Pearson for review at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Date and time: Wed. March 2, 2011, 8pm Tehran time
Nancy Pearson: “Step four—Exploring and selecting targets and tactics”
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