Session four of the course looks at bottom-up approaches to the fight against corruption, giving an account of their influential role. We also discuss how social, economic, political, and psychological pressures bring people together in such efforts.
In societies which often feature weak rule of law, poverty, and intense repression, popular campaigns against corruption tend to be most conspicuous. This repression might be enforced by the state itself, factions of the security forces, or organized crime elements.
Session four also references anti-corruption efforts in Indonesia and Brazil.